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How to Prevent Cold Stress at Work, Inside or Outside

Cold stress isn't just a hazard for outdoor workers. What are the best ways to prevent cold stress injuries and illnesses and what is the best clothing to wear in cold environments?

Snowmen Dressed Like Construction Workers

Anyone working in a cold environment may be at risk for cold stress. This could include an indoor workplace like cold storage or an outdoor job in construction or agriculture. Prolonged exposure to cold and/or freezing temperatures while on the job may cause serious health problems such as trench foot, frostbite and hypothermia. In extreme cases, exposure to cold temperatures can lead to death.

Winter, Cold Warning Sign

Although OSHA does not have a specific standard that covers working in cold environments, under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970, employers have a duty to protect workers from recognized hazards, including cold stress hazards, that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm in the workplace.

Risk factors for cold stress include:

  • Overexposure to cold temperatures
  • Increase wind speed, and the wind chill effect
  • Wet clothing and/or wet skin
  • Dressing improperly for the weather
  • Exhaustion
  • Health conditions such as high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, diabetes or asthma
  • Poor physical conditioning
  • Inadequate training on how to work safely in cold temperatures


  • Wear proper clothing for cold, wet and windy conditions
  • Take frequent, short breaks in warm, dry shelters
  • Schedule work for the warmest part of the day
  • Avoid exhaustion or fatigue
  • Keep extra clothing handy in case clothes get wet
  • Drink warm, sweet beverages and avoid drinks with caffeine or alcohol
  • Eat warm, high-calorie foods
  • Use the buddy-system - work in pairs so that one worker can recognize the danger signs
  • Stay dry in the cold because moisture or dampness, even from sweating, can increase the rate of heat loss from the body

Dressing properly is extremely important to preventing cold stress. Wear at least three layers of loose fitting clothing. Layers provides better insulation.

  • An inner layer of thermal wear, wool, silk or synthetic (polypropylene) to keep moisture away from the body.
  • A middle layer of wool or synthetic to provide insulation even when wet.
  • An outer wind and rain protection layer that allows some ventilation to prevent overheating.

Tight clothing reduces blood circulation and warm blood needs to be circulated to the extremities.

Indoor Cold Environment

Other important clothing that can help prevent cold stress:

  • Insulated coat/jacket (water resistant if necessary)
  • Knit mask to cover face and mouth (if needed)
  • Hat that covers the ears. A hat will help keep the whole body warmer and reduce the amount of body heat that escapes from the head.
  • Insulated gloves (water resistant if necessary, to protect the hands
  • Insulated and waterproof boots to protect the feet

If employees are working in cold environments, indoors or outdoors, then they should have access to cold stress prevention safety training and it's also a great topic for a safety meeting.

MARCOM's Winter Safety Video Program reviews the hazards that winter can bring and discusses how to enjoy the season safely. The video covers topics like how to keep warm in the cold, driving safely in sloppy weather, having fun and staying outdoors, avoiding the hazards of holiday decorations, celebrating the season responsibly, and more.

The video training kit comes with a comprehensive leader's guide, a scheduling and attendance form, an employee quiz, a training certificate, and a training log. The video is available in English and Spanish and can be mailed to you on a DVD or USB drive. The video is also available to access immediately with the Video on Demand option. Click the button below to learn more.


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